Lord Alfred was the son of the Marquess of Queensbury, who objected to his son's spending so much time with Wilde because of Wilde's flamboyant behavior and homosexual relationships. In , after being publicly insulted by the marquess, Wilde brought an unsuccessful slander suit against the peer.
The result of his inability to prove slander was his own trial on charges of sodomy, of which he was found guilty and sentenced to two years of hard labor. During his time in prison, he wrote a scathing rebuke to Lord Alfred, published in as De Profundis. In it he argues that his conduct was a result of his standing "in symbolic relations to the art and culture" of his time. After his release, Wilde left England for Paris, where he wrote what may be his most famous poem, The Ballad of Reading Gaol , drawn from his prison experiences.
Among his other notable writing is The Soul of Man under Socialism , which argues for individualism and freedom of artistic expression. There has been a revived interest in Wilde's work; among the best recent volumes are Richard Ellmann's, Oscar Wilde and Regenia Gagnier's Idylls of the Marketplace , two works that vary widely in their critical assumptions and approach to Wilde but that offer rich insights into his complex character.
Lady Windermere's fan. Oscar Wilde. The play was first published in Like many of Wilde's comedies, it bitingly satirizes the morals of society. Decadence was, therefore, considered to be degeneration by the defenders of the normative gender structure in British society.
Lady Windermere's Fan (illustrated) [Oscar Wilde] on gepickrecboigluc.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Lord Darlington. How do you do, Lady Windermere ?. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Oscar Wilde (16 October – 30 November ) was Lady Windermere's Fan (Illustrated) by [Wilde, Oscar].
In Britain, one of the most marginal masculinities among these unconventional circles belonged to dandyism which became identical with Oscar Wilde with all its characteristics. He drew attention in the literary world with his extravagant outfits, witty epigrams, and unconventional manners Pearson, , p. As a novelist first, he pro- duced The Picture of Dorian Gray in , which startled the moral sensibilities and the ideal of mas- culinity held by the Victorian society.
One year later, he started to write plays, first serious ones such as Vera; or, the Nihilist , The Duchess of Padua , performed in and Salome , and then comedies. Without overtly violating the norms of the late Victorian society, he wrote for the theatre by extensively borrowing from melodramatic sources.
So, it can be articulated that Wilde combined what society demanded with what he himself was pleased with so that both sides were left content. This combination actually suited the new masculinity figure of the deca- dence: the dandy.
A man described as a dandy is mostly recognised with the neatness of his apparels. That is most certainly is, but much more besides. Dandyism is a complete theory of life and its material is not its only side. It is a way of existing, made up entirely of shades, as is always the case in very old and very civilised societies. Thus, the dandy is advocated to be a member or insider of Victorian society though he does not appreciate the hypocritical deeds of the society he lives in.
However, he both practises and ridicules them. What is also essential in a dandy is his superiority regarding his wit and firm individuality. His expression of self-morality provides a revolt against the nineteenth-century middle-class conventions, industriousness, materialism and utilitarianism. By opposing the uniformity of people, the dandy values individuality above social descriptions Glick, , pp. His individuality carries his honesty in the face of the hypocrisy of society.
He observes the flaws of the Victorian middle classes and avoids to practice their ideals. Moreover, he is unable to desist from ridiculing with situations sprung after these flaws. The dandy always emphasises the insincere, deceitful teachings, the practises in contrast with the moral ideals, and the judgemental and exclusionary attitudes of the society he lives in. These beings have no other status but that of cultivating the idea of beauty in their own persons, of satisfying their passions, of feeling and thinking.
The dandy pursues his own desires to obtain the pleasures of the world. His wealth and leisure time enables him to put his ideals into practice. It was an image of a well-dressed man who, while taking infinite pains about his appearance, affected indifference to it. This refined dandyism conti- nued to be regarded as an essential strand of male Englishness.
He has radically broken with the past traditions, and he has an idle, decadent lifestyle. Wilde embodied all the characteristic features of the masculinity of a dandy in his character and lifestyle by becoming the centre of one of the most notorious scandals of the time due to his homosexuality.
Mrs Erlynne, having desired to see the lady of the ball and failed to find her, realises something is wrong and finds a letter left by Lady Windermere. In order to save her daughter from the shame of her deed in such an elite and normative society, Mrs Erlynne hurries to the lodging of Lord Darlington and urges Lord Augustus, her courtier, to keep Lord Darlington out of the house as long as possible. In the end, Mrs Erlynne takes the photo of her daughter with her grand-son and the fan of Lady Windermere with permission, and leaves without revealing any secret to her.
Throughout the play, Oscar Wilde presents the audience with several dandy characters who arti- culate their worldviews one after the other and, in a way, demonstrate what it is to be a dandy. If a dandy wants to dominate his society, he ought to be superior to it and Lord Darlington, here, belongs to the aristocracy to which eloquence and aesthetics are attached by the dandy. He primarily shows his dandiacal side with his master of courteous speech while wooing the married, young lady.
I should be sorry to have to quarrel with you, Lord Darlington Believe me, you are better than most other men, and I sometimes think you pretend to be worse. If you pretend to be good, the world takes you very seriously. Such is the astounding stupidity of optimism. As a self-centred dandy, his masculinity hinders Lord Darlington focusing on anything but himself in this dialogue.
Therefore, he gets oblivious to what the lady he is with says and leaves her questions unanswered. People are either charming or tedious.
It is a sacrament. Its ideal is Love. As a wicked man I am a complete failure. Why, there are lots of people who say I have never really done anything wrong in the whole course of my life. With that view, a dandy like Lord Darlington surprises society with his conflictual manners. The dandy still continues to be charming in the eyes of those who do not approve of his manners. It is seen that the young gentleman successfully transferred his conflictual identity to the Duchess, and she does not eventually despise him, relying on the rumours of the town or his being a self-centred, pleasure-fond dandy.
However, there is one danger for a dandy: to lose his dandyism, to surren- der his character to middle-class sentimental values. You are more to me than anything in the whole world. What does your husband give you? Whatever is in him he gives to this wretched woman, whom he has thrust into your society, into your home, to shame you before every one.
Take it, and do with it what you will. From the moment I met you I loved you, loved you blindly, adoringly, madly! You did not know it then — you know it now! In the previous act, he is seen to have rejected the conventional definitions of society. He has not cared about them. Nonetheless, it is understood that he listens to and minds what the elite society thinks of him.
They matter a great deal. To put it differently, he ceases to be truly dandiacal by paying attention to the content, not the form. In his comical conversation with ladies at the ball, he is seen to play with words and not to pay attention to what is said, or the content, but the flow of the conversation, i. I suppose this will be the last ball of the season?
Victorian masculinities: manhood and masculine poetics in early Victorian literature and art. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. You can also choose to be emailed when someone replies to your comment. Health insurance. Read latest edition. Join the discussion. Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review.
Good evening, Duchess. Dreadfully dull! Other people are his mirror.
Dumby, as a representation of the artistic dandy, delights in his own capability of eloquence and pays attention to the formation of the expressions he utters, but not their meanings. Since dandyism does not, in reality, have a political purpose, it does not aim to influence or to urge other men or women to absorb its ideals. Therefore, dandyism can be said to have no ideological aim, but is just a philosophical stance against the bourgeois normativity and masculinity values in the nineteenth century. Additionally, dandyism is not limited to only males.
It is possible to see dandiacal traits also in the central female character of the play, Mrs Erlynne. She has been alienated from society due to a secret in her past.
That secret is revealed at the end of the second act when she learns that Lady Windermere has left her husband for another man. Who knows that better than I? It is understood that she once paid attention to appearances, but not the realities, just like a dandy would do. Her motive is also given as to re-enter the elite society, of which she was a member in the past, and to be accepted by it. All the dandies, at some point, are seen to have rejected the morals and conventions of the Victorian middle classes. Wilde illustrates why: For the real artist is he who proceeds, not from feeling to form, but from form to thought and passion He gains his inspiration from form, and from form purely, as an artist should All bad poetry springs from genuine feeling.
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