On the other hand a renewed national emphasis by progressive groups on the need for reconciliation with the Aboriginal peoples has also included so-called ethnic or non Anglo-Celtic writers such as David Malouf and Brian Castro who attempt to deal with these issues in their recent work. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation ed. Ziff and Rao, Rutgers UP contains several contributions by Canadians, including Lenore Keeshig-Tobias, who was at the centre of this debate in Canada because she chaired the Racial Minority Writers' Committee of the Writers' Union of Canada which brought a motion to the Writers' Union in that caused a great deal of angry and anguished debate.
I have delivered a paper on this debate in Edmonton, and have discussed the issue at length with Susan Crean, who was President of the Writers' Union at that time. The debate in Canada has several centres, including the split of Women's Press, in Toronto, over the issue of whether stories written by white women from Black women's perspectives should be published in an anthology.
In Lee Maracle, a Native writer, asked Anne Cameron, author of best-selling novel Daughters of Copper Woman , to stop using traditional Native stories in her work. In , controversy broke out over the representation of minority Canadian writers at the PEN conference in Toronto. In the Canada Council set up an Advisory Committee for Racial Equality in the Arts; perhaps needless to say, its report was controversial.
Finally, a conference called Writing Through Race which excluded those who were not members of an ethnic minority from most of its workshops held in Vancouver in Hartmut Lutz's collection of interviews Contemporary Challenges , ? To do a detailed investigation into all of these local debates is impossible; Fee would like to focus on the perspective of Indigenous writers, showing where their position diverges from that of other ethnic minority writers.
How do these groups hope to have their voices heard and how are their arguments received by the mainstream? Claiming to be based on historical facts the novel deals with current war- crime trials involving aged Ukrainians accused of involvement in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Thus the first scandal surrounding the novel related to whether or not it was anti-Semitic whereas the second concerned the revelation that the author had no ethnic Ukrainian affiliations and was indeed the daughter of British immigrants.
Authenticity has always been both the strength and the weakness of the Indigenous writer in Canada.
How does someone like Thomas King, born in California, part Cherokee, but also part Greek, part German, deal with this issue? Or Beth Brant, whose mother was non-Mohawk? Will Native culture die as intermarriage proceeds apace? Beatrice Culleton's In Search of April Raintree shows the devastating force of the myth of racial difference in the lives of two Metis sisters, one who passes as white, the other who asserts proudly that she is Native.
This same difficulty appears in Aboriginal writing in Australia, where the recent discovery that Mudrooroo appeared to be of Black American, rather than Aboriginal ancestry caused much discussion.
The question of inauthenticity arises repeatedly in discussions of ethnic minority writings in Australia particularly when it is coupled with questions of genre. From founding nation to just another "cultural community" a loan translation from the French term , the Quebec English community has struggled politically for example, through the formation of Alliance Quebec, an organization dedicated to the protection of English- language rights, and the election of four members of the Equality Party to the Quebec National Assembly.
He has also published hundreds of essays, and a best-selling book about the language controversy in Quebec, Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! The publication of a portion of this book in The New Yorker produced a tremendous outcry. Many immigrants have arrived in Quebec since World War II, and the ethno-linguistic-religious combinations and permutations are complex.
Haitian and Vietnamese immigrants, for example, are francophone, but racially distinct; are they regarded as more or less assimilable than European allophones, such as the Greeks and the Italians?
A plenary paper delivered to the Association for Canadian and Quebec Literatures "Shifting Political Categories in Quebec English," Montreal, discussed the ways in which words such as separatist, independentist, and sovereignist are deployed in English Quebec and the rest of Canada and how controversies over terms such as vieille souche and pure laine which demarcate francophone Quebeckers with a long history in the province reveal struggles over ethnicity. Although this section will draw on this work, we would like to extend the discussion to creative writers, such as Richler.
In Australia the issue of languages other than English and writings in those languages has barely received recognition. There has been a marked shift from European languages and increasing interest in some Asian languages due to changes in global capitalism. The work of someone like the poet Antigone Kefala has served to register some of the shifts in relation to European immigrants band the project will also focus on what have been called the post-Tiananmin writers, students who were granted asylum after this event and who have formed a loose network of writers and artists particularly around the work of Ouyang Yu and the Deakin University academic Wenche Ommundsen.
Blood and belonging, Part II. The question we should be asking is different from the one debated: Why is there so little cultural appropriation of Indigenous cultural forms in this country? And, more to the point, because Erl had no Indigenous blood whatsoever. The Pacific Coast Militia Rangers were formed in in order to provide an armed presence on the coast in addition to the pre-war fortress garrisons, which were expanded after hostilities. Scott Steedman is a freelance editor and the author of a dozen books. Increasingly, Indigenous writers and writers who draw on backgrounds other than western European ones have examined the political opportunities of Canadian pluralism, but also the social limitations of local convention.
What are some of the tactics employed by these intellectuals to maintain a space for themselves inside Canada that nonetheless allows their differences to be maintained. Conclusion : this will look at some of the histories of minority groups and their vexed relations to mainstream criticism in both countries and set out some of the anomalies we have uncovered as part of our research for this project.
It will undoubtedly also suggest other avenues worthy of further exploration in these two complex countries. Banerji, Himani. Toronto: Women's Press, Toronto: Sister Vision Press, Brydon, Diana and Helen Tiffin. Decolonizing Fictions.
Sydney: Dangaroo, Culleton, Beatrice. In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg: Pemmican, Dale, Leigh. Fee, Margery.
Stead didn't like Keri Hulme's the bone people: Who can write as Other? London: Routledge,. Gikandi, Simon. New York: Columbia UP, Goldie, Terry.
Vancouver, considered to be amongst the most beautiful cities in the world, is located in British Columbia on the Pacific coast of Canada. The city itself has a. As a relatively young global city, Vancouver can play up to its brash, breezy image. in the early 60s, on the cusp of a breakthrough in her writing just as the city Timothy Taylor's novel Stanley Park explores the tension between local to the ongoing neglect of First Nations communities, Vancouver has.
Guillory, John. Chicago: U of Chicago P, Gunew, S. Displacements: migrant storytellers , Deakin University Press, Victoria, Mahyuddin eds. Hall, Joy, ed. Writing Thru Race: Final Report. Hodge, Bob and Vijay Mishra. Holt, R. Jurgensen, M. Ethnic Australia , Phoenix Publications Brisbane. Adamson eds. In the panoramic Two Solitudes and The Watch That Ends the Night , framed against the backdrop of the two world wars, Hugh MacLennan attempted to capture moral , social, and religious conflicts that rent individuals, families, and the French and English communities in Quebec.
After the s this tentativeness in fiction either became itself the subject of the novel or was dissipated in more confident forms of writing. In her collection of stories Across the Bridge , she probes the thin line between good and evil in the lives of ordinary people. Although historical events and the investigation of place as an imaginative source remained the most common subject matters, the narrative forms were experimental and playful.
In The Temptations of Big Bear , The Scorched-Wood People , and A Discovery of Strangers , Rudy Wiebe constructed fictional and spiritual epics based on historical events in the west and the precarious relations between First Nations and European explorers and settlers.
The Stone Diaries , which won a Pulitzer Prize , begins in early 20th-century Manitoba and follows the life of Daisy from birth to death in a variety of voices and textual strategies, while in Unless a middle-aged professional woman confronts the nature of goodness and the disintegration of a comfortable family life. Audrey Thomas reveals the dilemmas confronting women in innovative short stories Real Mothers  and novels Intertidal Life , ; Graven Images , ; Isobel Gunn , Jack Hodgins maps a surreal island world in The Invention of the World and The Macken Charm , mock-epics that both feature larger-than-life, eccentric characters and tell a colourful history of Vancouver Island.
Daphne Marlatt radically revises family and colonial history, narrative, and sexuality in Ana Historic and Taken Although the subject of history exerts a powerful influence on all forms of Canadian writing, the tradition of regional fiction has not lost its momentum. In Clara Callan , Richard B.
Wright portrays quiet lives in small-town Ontario. Resisting the imposition of Western concepts of history, land, nation, society, and narrative, many of these writers explored their oral traditions, myths , and cultural practices. Works that engage these concerns include novels and stories by Jeannette Armstrong Slash , , rev. Other perspectives tackle the experiences of immigrants—their interrogation of the meaning of home and belonging, their feelings of cultural assimilation and estrangement, and their intergenerational struggles.
In her lyrical and meditative novels Plainsong , The Mark of the Angel , and Prodigy , Nancy Huston , an expatriate in Paris, reflects on dislocation and exile. Asian Canadian writing has emerged as a powerful and innovative force. Canadian literature. Article Media.